Modeling and Analysis of Computer Networks

Main Textbook

Keshav S., “An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking,” Addison-Wesley, 1997.

Other Textbooks:

Bertsekas D. and Gallager R., “Data Networks,” 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992.

Tanenbaum A.S., “Computer Networks,  3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1996.


1.      The Telephone Networks: Concepts, history and Challenges

2.      The Internet: Concepts, history and Challenges

3.      ATM Networks: Concepts, History, and Challenges

4.      Protocol Layering

5.      Multiple Access

6.      Switching

7.      Error Control

8.      Point-to-Point Protocols and Links

9.      Delay Models in Data Networks


·          The Telephone Networks: Concepts, history and Challenges

o              Concepts

o              End Systems

§          Signal Transducers

§          Side tones and echoes

§          Dialing and Ringing

o            Transmission

§          Link characteristics

§          Multiplexing

§          Link technologies

o              Switching

o              Signaling

§          State transition diagrams

§          Common channel interoffice signaling

o              Cellular communications

§          Location tracking

§          Hand-off

o              Historical sketch

o              Challenges

§          Multimedia

§          Backward compatibility

§          Regulations

§          Competition

§          Inefficiencies within the system

·                The Internet: Concepts, history and Challenges

o              Concepts

o              Basic Internet technology

§           Packets

§           Store-and-forward

§           Problems with store-and-forward routing

o              Addressing

§           Address classes

§           Longer addresses

o              Routing

§            Default routes

§            Computing routing tables

o              Endpoint control

o              History

§            ARPANET

§            DNA, SNA, and ISO

§            LANS and commercialization

§            Growth

§            The World Wide Web

o              Challenges

§            IP address space shortage

§            Problems of decentralized control

§            Multimedia

·                ATM Networks: Concepts, History, and Challenges

o              Virtual circuits

§            Packet-switched networks

§            Datagram and virtual circuits

§            Virtual circuits

o              Fixed-size packets

§            Buffer hardware

§            Line scheduling

§            Large parallel packet switches

§            Problems with fixed size

o              Small packet size

§            Standard cell size

o              Statistical multiplexing

o              Integrated service

§            Integrated service

§            Bandwidth

§             Supporting different traffic types

o              History

o              Challenges

§              Quality of service

§              Scaling

§              Competition from other LAN technologies

§              Standards

§              ATM and IP

·                Protocol Layering

o              Protocols and protocol layering

o              The importance of layering

o              Problems of layering

o              ISO OSI reference model

o              The seven layers

§            Physical layer

§            Data link layer

§            Network layer

§            Transport layer

§            Session layer

§            Presentation layer

§            Application layer

·                Multiple Access

o              Contexts for the multiple access problem

o              Choices and constraints

§            Choices

§            Constraints

§            Performance metrics

o              Base technologies

§             FDMA

§            TDMA

§            CDMA

o              Centralized access schemes

§            Circuit mode

§             Polling and probing

§             Reservation-based schemes

o              Distributed schemes

§            Decentralized polling and probing

§            CSMA and its variants

§            Dealing with hidden terminals: BTMA and MACA

§            Token passing and its variants

§            ALOHA and its variants

·                Switching

o              Introduction

§            Classification

§            Requirements

§            A generic switch

o              Circuit switching

§           Multiplexing switching

§           Circuit switching

§           Time-division switching

§           Space-division switching

§           Time-Space switching

§           Time-space time switching

o              Packet switching

§           Blocking in packet switching

§           Three generations of packet switches

§           First-generation switches

§           Second-generation switches

§           Third-generation switches

o              Switch fabrics

§           Crossbar

§           Broadcast

§           Switch fabric element

§           Banyan

§           Sorting and merging networks

§           Batcher-Banyan

o              Buffering

§           Input queueing

§           Output queueing

§           Shared memory

§           Buffered fabrics

§           Hybrid schemes

o              Multicasting

§           Generating and distributing copies

§           Header translation

·         Error Control

o              Causes of bit error

§         Gaussian noise

§         Non Gaussian noise

§         Loss of synchronization

§         Scramblers

§         Protection switching

§         Handoffs and fading

o              Bit error detection and correction

§         Parity

§         Rectangular codes

§         Hamming codes

§         Interleaved codes

§         Cyclic redundancy check

§         BCH and Reed-Solomon codes

§         Convolutional codes

§         Software coders

o              Causes of packet errors

§         Packet loss

§         Loss of fragmented data

§         Packet duplication, insertion and reordering

·        Point to Point Protocols and Links

o       Error Detection

§         Horizontal and Vertical Parity Checks

§         Parity Check Codes

§         Cyclic Redundancy Checks

o       ARQ:  Retransmission Strategies

§         Stop-and-Wait ARQ

§         Go back n ARQ

§         Selective Repeat ARQ

§         APRANET ARQ

o       FRAMING

§         Character-Based Framing

§         Bit-Oriented Framing: Flags

§         Framing with Errors

§         Maximum Frame Size

·        Delay Models in Data Networks

o       Multiplexing of Traffic on a Communication Link

o       Queuing Models- Little’s Theorem

§         Little’s Theorem

§         Probabilistic Form of Little’s Theorem

§         Application of Little’s Theorem

o       The M/M/1 Queuing System

§         Arrival Statistics, Service Statistics

§         Markov Chain Formulation

§         Deviation of the Stationary Distribution

§         Occupancy Distribution upon Arrival

§         Occupancy Distribution upon Departure

o       The M/M/m, M/M/µ, M/M/m/m, AND Other Markov Systems

§         The M/M/m: The m-Server Case

§         M/M/µ: The Infinite-Server Case

§         M/M/m/m: The m-Server Loss System

§         Multidimensional Markov Chains- Applications in Circuit Switching

o       The M/G/1 System

§         M/G/1 Queues with Vacations

§         Reservations and Polling

§         Priority Queueing